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perseus: space-pics: A collection of gas and dust over 500 light-years across, the Perseus Molecular Cloud [3000 x 1223]
perseus: space-pics:

A collection of gas and dust over 500 light-years across, the Perseus Molecular Cloud [3000 x 1223]

space-pics: A collection of gas and dust over 500 light-years across, the Perseus Molecular Cloud [3000 x 1223]

perseus: Ican go the distance. nialljhoran: hercules: rip to odysseus, perseus, theseus and achilles but im different
perseus: Ican go the distance.
nialljhoran:

hercules: rip to odysseus, perseus, theseus and achilles but im different

nialljhoran: hercules: rip to odysseus, perseus, theseus and achilles but im different

perseus: photos-of-space: Double Cluster in Perseus [4520x3616][OS][OC]
perseus: photos-of-space:

Double Cluster in Perseus [4520x3616][OS][OC]

photos-of-space: Double Cluster in Perseus [4520x3616][OS][OC]

perseus: astronomyblog: Full moon over Athens, GreeceCredit: Anthony Ayiomamitis
perseus: astronomyblog:

Full moon over Athens, GreeceCredit:

Anthony Ayiomamitis

astronomyblog: Full moon over Athens, GreeceCredit: Anthony Ayiomamitis

perseus: I dig this for a couple of reasons. First, it's got great style. Perhaps more interestingly though, is that it's a very different tone as far as the direction of aggression. Most people know the Clash of the Titans version where she's on the hunt for him once he shows up. But let's face it, Medusa really gets the shaft from destiny overal She starts out as a priestess in a temple who gets raped by Poseidon and gets cursed for it as if it was all her fault. The result is that she's basically doomed to live without human contact for eternity. Then she's hunted down specifically for her head by a demigod whose got all sorts of great toys and backing to get the job done and depicted as some sort of horrible monster for defending her turf from folks out to kill her There are some really interesting theories about regarding just what the whole 'gorgon thing was really about from a historical perspective. It's really quite a tragic tale about the rise of patriarchy and the purge of goddess-centric worshipers. There are also parallels to the Apollo versus Typhon story which is part of the same0 era. Harsh. See, even the demystified stories from ancient times are fascinating! deviantart Medusa by "MattRhodes Reblogging for commentary I wish there were more nuanced portrayals of Medusa than as just a scary. snake lady Not to mention all this shit went down while she was pregnant with twins, the Pegasus and the giant Chrysaor, as a result from the rape Perseus would mount Pegasus, and use him and Medusa's head to kill a sea monster, thus winning him a wife, Andromeda. Medusa was cursed by the very goddess she served, Athena, who also gave Perseus the mirrored shield he used to slay her. Raped, betrayed by her god, hunted down like a beast in her own home while she was pregnant, her own children stolen from her and used to glorify and aide her killers and betrayers. And she's supposed to be the monster? ei That's hoW Greek men saw the myth. Greek women viewed it as Athena protecting Medusa by giving her the power to make any man who looked at her completely harmless. Her head was used as a symbol to mark women's shelters in ancient Greece. 。 Friendly reminder to remember that women have their own vivid lives and cultures and that the stories which are preserved today come through a heavy filter of gender, race, and class biases VIA THEMETAPICTURE.COM srsfunny:I Dig This For A Couple Of Reasons
perseus: I dig this for a couple of reasons.
 First, it's got great style.
 Perhaps more interestingly though, is that it's a very
 different tone as far as the direction of aggression. Most
 people know the Clash of the Titans version where
 she's on the hunt for him once he shows up. But let's
 face it, Medusa really gets the shaft from destiny overal
 She starts out as a priestess in a temple who gets raped
 by Poseidon and gets cursed for it as if it was all her
 fault. The result is that she's basically doomed to live
 without human contact for eternity. Then she's hunted
 down specifically for her head by a demigod whose got
 all sorts of great toys and backing to get the job done
 and depicted as some sort of horrible monster for
 defending her turf from folks out to kill her
 There are some really interesting theories about
 regarding just what the whole 'gorgon thing was really
 about from a historical perspective. It's really quite a
 tragic tale about the rise of patriarchy and the purge of
 goddess-centric worshipers. There are also parallels to
 the Apollo versus Typhon story which is part of the same0
 era. Harsh.
 See, even the demystified stories from ancient times are
 fascinating!
 deviantart
 Medusa by "MattRhodes
 Reblogging for commentary
 I wish there were more nuanced portrayals of Medusa than as
 just a scary. snake lady
 Not to mention all this shit went down while she was pregnant with
 twins, the Pegasus and the giant Chrysaor, as a result from the rape
 Perseus would mount Pegasus, and use him and Medusa's head to
 kill a sea monster, thus winning him a wife, Andromeda. Medusa was
 cursed by the very goddess she served, Athena, who also gave
 Perseus the mirrored shield he used to slay her. Raped, betrayed by
 her god, hunted down like a beast in her own home while she was
 pregnant, her own children stolen from her and used to glorify and
 aide her killers and betrayers. And she's supposed to be the monster?
 ei
 That's hoW Greek men saw the myth. Greek women viewed it as
 Athena protecting Medusa by giving her the power to make any
 man who looked at her completely harmless. Her head was used as
 a symbol to mark women's shelters in ancient Greece.
 。
 Friendly reminder to remember that women have their own vivid lives and
 cultures and that the stories which are preserved today come through a
 heavy filter of gender, race, and class biases
 VIA THEMETAPICTURE.COM
srsfunny:I Dig This For A Couple Of Reasons

srsfunny:I Dig This For A Couple Of Reasons

perseus: thebutchriarchy:Medusa with the Head of Perseus, Luciano Garbati, 2008
perseus: thebutchriarchy:Medusa with the Head of Perseus, Luciano Garbati, 2008

thebutchriarchy:Medusa with the Head of Perseus, Luciano Garbati, 2008

perseus: D-6)-D DARK SIDE DIMENSION Tongkat Penghilang ingatan di Mesir HUMANDoD Ada sebuah tongkat yang dapat menghilangkan ingatan di Mesir. Tongkat ini digunakan untuk menghilangkan ingatan orang yang akan di jadikan mumi. Sebuah alat penghilang ingatan digunakan pada saat pembalseman mumi Mesir kuno. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh beberapa peneliti ketika sedang meneliti sebuah mumi perempuan yang diperkirakan berumur 40 tahun pada waktu 2400 tahun yang lalu. Kejadian penemuan alat penghilang ingatan ini adalah yang kedua kalinya. Sebelumnya para peneliti Mumi juga menemukan alat yang serupa, tertanam di dalam tubuh sebuah mumi. Para peneliti terkejut ketika menemukan sebuah benda menyerupai kayu sepanjang 8cm yang terdapat di bagian tengkorak kepala mumi wanita ini. Menurut para ahli botani, alat ini terbuat dari tumbuhan Monocotyledon, kelompok kayu tumbuhan pohon kelapa dan bambu. “Hampir dipastikan ini merupakan sebuah alat excerebration (penghapusan memori) yang digunakan dalam proseses mumifikasi.” Ujar Dr Mislav Cavka pemimpin penelitian dari University Hospital Dubrava di Zagreb Kroasia. Dr. Cavka menduga cara kerja alat ini ialah dengan memasukkannya ke dalam tubuh mumi lalu dimasukkan cairan dan kembali dikeluarkan dari hidung mumi tersebut, sehingga beberapa bagian otak akan melilit di tongkat ini. Namun naas untuk yang satu ini, alat tersebut tersangkut di bagian tengkorak kepala mumi tersebut. Para peneliti membandingkan penemuan mereka dengan tulisan kuno tentang alat penghapusan otak yang dibuat oleh penulis Yunani Herodotus pada abad kelima SM yang telah diterjemahkan oleh AD Godley dari Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1920, melalui Perseus Digital Library. Di museum Mesir, mungkin masih ada bukti lain soal alat penghilang memori ingatan ini, tetapi alat ini tidak ditemukan di dalam tengkorak kepala seperti mumi wanita ini. Mumi, saat ini tersimpan di Museum Arkeologi di Zagreb Kroasia. Para ahli juga mengatakan, jika tongkat ini juga bisa menghapus kenangan. Sumber: http:-palingseru.com
perseus: D-6)-D
 DARK SIDE
 DIMENSION
 Tongkat
 Penghilang ingatan
 di Mesir
HUMANDoD Ada sebuah tongkat yang dapat menghilangkan ingatan di Mesir. Tongkat ini digunakan untuk menghilangkan ingatan orang yang akan di jadikan mumi. Sebuah alat penghilang ingatan digunakan pada saat pembalseman mumi Mesir kuno. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh beberapa peneliti ketika sedang meneliti sebuah mumi perempuan yang diperkirakan berumur 40 tahun pada waktu 2400 tahun yang lalu. Kejadian penemuan alat penghilang ingatan ini adalah yang kedua kalinya. Sebelumnya para peneliti Mumi juga menemukan alat yang serupa, tertanam di dalam tubuh sebuah mumi. Para peneliti terkejut ketika menemukan sebuah benda menyerupai kayu sepanjang 8cm yang terdapat di bagian tengkorak kepala mumi wanita ini. Menurut para ahli botani, alat ini terbuat dari tumbuhan Monocotyledon, kelompok kayu tumbuhan pohon kelapa dan bambu. “Hampir dipastikan ini merupakan sebuah alat excerebration (penghapusan memori) yang digunakan dalam proseses mumifikasi.” Ujar Dr Mislav Cavka pemimpin penelitian dari University Hospital Dubrava di Zagreb Kroasia. Dr. Cavka menduga cara kerja alat ini ialah dengan memasukkannya ke dalam tubuh mumi lalu dimasukkan cairan dan kembali dikeluarkan dari hidung mumi tersebut, sehingga beberapa bagian otak akan melilit di tongkat ini. Namun naas untuk yang satu ini, alat tersebut tersangkut di bagian tengkorak kepala mumi tersebut. Para peneliti membandingkan penemuan mereka dengan tulisan kuno tentang alat penghapusan otak yang dibuat oleh penulis Yunani Herodotus pada abad kelima SM yang telah diterjemahkan oleh AD Godley dari Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1920, melalui Perseus Digital Library. Di museum Mesir, mungkin masih ada bukti lain soal alat penghilang memori ingatan ini, tetapi alat ini tidak ditemukan di dalam tengkorak kepala seperti mumi wanita ini. Mumi, saat ini tersimpan di Museum Arkeologi di Zagreb Kroasia. Para ahli juga mengatakan, jika tongkat ini juga bisa menghapus kenangan. Sumber: http:-palingseru.com

HUMANDoD Ada sebuah tongkat yang dapat menghilangkan ingatan di Mesir. Tongkat ini digunakan untuk menghilangkan ingatan orang yang akan...

perseus: 1. ETERNAL STORAGE At the University of Southampton scientist have successfully used nanostructured glass device to create and retrive data. This device is size of the American quarter that can hold 36OTB of data and remain intact up to 1,000°C that means the average life at room temprature will be 13.8 billion years 2.DINOSAUR'S TAIL In month of december 99 million year old piece of dinosaur's tail was dangerously close to be converted into a jewelry but luckily landed in the hands of a paleontologists at market in Burma, who confirn it as tissue of dinosaur's tail which was first concieved as part of small plant 3. GRAVITATIONAL RIPPLES About 1.3 billon years ago two black hole of the size of 29 and 31 times the size of the sun collided to form a massive black hole due to this mass equal to 3 suns was converted into enegery which was then emitted in fraction of second.This gravitational waves were first predicted by General theory of relativity. 4.GENE EDITING Gene editing has been used for very long time for developing food crops and on animal but for first time it is been deviced for curing diseases like cancer by carefull editing of the gene. Further development in this technology may lead to designer babies, prolonged lifespan, eradication genetic diseases like diabetes. 5. HYPERLOOP ONE Hyperloop, the vacuum-powered train line created by Elon Musk, may get a big boost next year. Hyperloop One, a company founded to pursue the idea, plans to unveil a test track this year 6, WEIRD XRAY Odd X-ray pulses are streaming from the core of the Andromeda and Perseus galaxies. And the signals' spectrum (or light signature) does not match any known particle or atom. So astronomers are tentatively salivating over the prospect of a scientific breakthrough, as this phenomenon could just be the first tangible sign of dark matter Furthermore, since the radiation emanates from the cores of the galaxies, it corresponds lo areas of highly concentrated dark matter clumps. So while nothing is certain yet, this could be a momentous discovery that would greatly increase our understanding of a long-standing universal mystery New scientific discoveries and inventions (Believe it or not)
perseus: 1. ETERNAL STORAGE
 At the University of Southampton scientist have
 successfully used nanostructured glass device to
 create and retrive data. This device is size of the
 American quarter that can hold 36OTB of data and
 remain intact up to 1,000°C that means the
 average life at room temprature will be 13.8 billion
 years
 2.DINOSAUR'S TAIL
 In month of december 99 million year old
 piece of dinosaur's tail was dangerously
 close to be converted into a jewelry but
 luckily landed in the hands of a
 paleontologists at market in Burma, who
 confirn it as tissue of dinosaur's tail which
 was first concieved as part of small plant
 3. GRAVITATIONAL RIPPLES
 About 1.3 billon years ago two black hole of the size
 of 29 and 31 times the size of the sun collided to
 form a massive black hole due to this mass equal to
 3 suns was converted into enegery which was then
 emitted in fraction of second.This gravitational waves
 were first predicted by General theory of relativity.
 4.GENE EDITING
 Gene editing has been used for very long time for
 developing food crops and on animal but for first
 time it is been deviced for curing diseases like
 cancer by carefull editing of the gene. Further
 development in this technology may lead to designer
 babies, prolonged lifespan, eradication genetic
 diseases like diabetes.
 5. HYPERLOOP ONE
 Hyperloop, the vacuum-powered train line created by
 Elon Musk, may get a big boost next year. Hyperloop
 One, a company founded to pursue the idea, plans to
 unveil a test track this year
 6, WEIRD XRAY
 Odd X-ray pulses are streaming from the core of the
 Andromeda and Perseus galaxies. And the signals' spectrum
 (or light signature) does not match any known particle or
 atom. So astronomers are tentatively salivating over the
 prospect of a scientific breakthrough, as this phenomenon
 could just be the first tangible sign of dark matter
 Furthermore, since the radiation emanates from the cores of
 the galaxies, it corresponds lo areas of highly concentrated
 dark matter clumps. So while nothing is certain yet, this could
 be a momentous discovery that would greatly increase our
 understanding of a long-standing universal mystery
New scientific discoveries and inventions (Believe it or not)

New scientific discoveries and inventions (Believe it or not)

perseus: OOplaladnadadodadalalbOaaapolaplaaploalaapad000 lel I dig this for a couple of reasons. First, it's got great style. Perhaps more interestingly though, is that it's a very different tone as far as the direction of aggression. Most people know the Clash of the Titans version where she's on the hunt for him once he shows up. But let's face it, Medusa really gets the shaft from destiny overall. She starts out as a priestess in a temple who gets raped by Poseidon and gets cursed for it as if it was all her fault. The result is that she's basically doomed to live without human contact for eternity. Then she's hunted down specifically for her head by a demigod whose got all sorts of great toys and backing to get the job done and depicted as some sort of horrible monster for defending her turf from folks out to kill her There are some really interesting theories about regarding just what the whole 'gorgon' thing was really about from a historical perspective. It's really quite a tragic tale about the rise of patriarchy and the purge of goddess-centric worshipers. There are also parallels to the Apollo versus Typhon story which is part of the same era. Harsh. See, even the demystified stories from ancient times are fascinating! deviantart Medusa by "MattRhodes Reblogging for commentary I wish there were more nuanced portrayals of Medusa than as just a scary, snake lady. Not to mention all this shit went down while she was pregnant with twins, the Pegasus and the giant Chrysaor, as a result from the rape. Perseus would mount Pegasus, and use him and Medusa's head to kill a sea monster, thus winning him a wife, Andromeda. Medusa was cursed by the very goddess she served, Athena, who also gave Perseus the mirrored shield he used to slay her. Raped, betrayed by her god, hunted down like a beast in her own home while she was pregnant, her own children stolen from her and used to glority and aide her killers and betrayers. And she's supposed to be the monster? That's how Greek men saw the myth. Greek women viewed it as Athena protecting Medusa by giving her the power to make any man who looked at her completely harmless. Her head was used as a symbol to mark women's shelters in ancient Greece. Friendly reminder to remember that women have their own vivid lives and cultures and that the stories which are preserved today come through a heavy filter of gender, race, and class biases. OO00000O000000000000 000000O00000 O000000000GO Medusa was badass
perseus: OOplaladnadadodadalalbOaaapolaplaaploalaapad000
 lel
 I dig this for a couple of reasons.
 First, it's got great style.
 Perhaps more interestingly though, is that it's a very
 different tone as far as the direction of aggression. Most
 people know the Clash of the Titans version where
 she's on the hunt for him once he shows up. But let's
 face it, Medusa really gets the shaft from destiny overall.
 She starts out as a priestess in a temple who gets raped
 by Poseidon and gets cursed for it as if it was all her
 fault. The result is that she's basically doomed to live
 without human contact for eternity. Then she's hunted
 down specifically for her head by a demigod whose got
 all sorts of great toys and backing to get the job done
 and depicted as some sort of horrible monster for
 defending her turf from folks out to kill her
 There are some really interesting theories about
 regarding just what the whole 'gorgon' thing was really
 about from a historical perspective. It's really quite a
 tragic tale about the rise of patriarchy and the purge of
 goddess-centric worshipers. There are also parallels to
 the Apollo versus Typhon story which is part of the same
 era. Harsh.
 See, even the demystified stories from ancient times are
 fascinating!
 deviantart
 Medusa by "MattRhodes
 Reblogging for commentary
 I wish there were more nuanced portrayals of Medusa than as
 just a scary, snake lady.
 Not to mention all this shit went down while she was pregnant with
 twins, the Pegasus and the giant Chrysaor, as a result from the rape.
 Perseus would mount Pegasus, and use him and Medusa's head to
 kill a sea monster, thus winning him a wife, Andromeda. Medusa was
 cursed by the very goddess she served, Athena, who also gave
 Perseus the mirrored shield he used to slay her. Raped, betrayed by
 her god, hunted down like a beast in her own home while she was
 pregnant, her own children stolen from her and used to glority and
 aide her killers and betrayers. And she's supposed to be the monster?
 That's how Greek men saw the myth. Greek women viewed it as
 Athena protecting Medusa by giving her the power to make any
 man who looked at her completely harmless. Her head was used as
 a symbol to mark women's shelters in ancient Greece.
 Friendly reminder to remember that women have their own vivid lives and
 cultures and that the stories which are preserved today come through a
 heavy filter of gender, race, and class biases.
 OO00000O000000000000
 000000O00000
 O000000000GO
Medusa was badass

Medusa was badass

perseus: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>FYI.</p>
perseus: In ancient Egypt, any books found
 in ships coming into port, would be
 brought immediately to the library of
 Alexandria and be copied. The
 original would be kept in the library
 and the copy given back to the
 owner.
 Ultrafacts.tumblr.com
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p>
</blockquote>
<p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>but why</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p>
</blockquote>
<p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p>
</blockquote>
<p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p>
<p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p>
<p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p>
<p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p>
<p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p>
<p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>FYI.</p>

<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <block...

perseus: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>#getrekt</p>
perseus: In ancient Egypt, any books found
 in ships coming into port, would be
 brought immediately to the library of
 Alexandria and be copied. The
 original would be kept in the library
 and the copy given back to the
 owner.
 Ultrafacts.tumblr.com
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p>
</blockquote>
<p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>but why</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p>
</blockquote>
<p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p>
</blockquote>
<p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p>
<p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p>
<p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p>
<p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p>
<p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p>
<p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p>
</blockquote>

<p>#getrekt</p>

<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <block...